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General Information

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
ABA is a well-developed scientific discipline among the helping professions that focuses on the analysis, design, implementation, and evaluation of social and other environmental modifications to produce meaningful changes in human behavior. ​​​​ABA includes the use of direct observation, measurement, and functional analysis of the relations between environment and behavior.


ABA uses changes in environmental events, including antecedent stimuli and consequences, to produce practical and significant changes in behavior. These relevant environmental events are usually identified through a variety of specialized assessment methods. ABA is based on the fact that an individual’s behavior is determined by past and current environmental events in conjunction with organic variables such as their genetic endowment and physiological variables.

Two broad classes of interventions appear in the research literature, the comprehensive treatment models and focused intervention practices.​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​


  • Comprehensive treatment models (CTMs) consist of a set of practices designed to achieve a broad learning or developmental impact on the core deficits of ASD. 

  • Focused intervention practices are designed to address a single skill or goal of a student with ASD. These practices are operationally defined, address specific learner outcomes, and tend to occur over a shorter time period than CTMs.

Blue Background
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

​ASD is identified by two primary diagnostic markers: difficulties in social communication and restricted or repetitive behaviors and interests. Examples of difficulties in social communication include challenges in social reciprocity, nonver- bal social behaviors, and establishment of social relationships. Restrictive and repetitive behaviors include stereotypic behavior or speech, excessive adherence to routines, and highly fixated interests. Rather than specify severity of ASD, the DSM 5 has the option of describing the level of support an individual would need. In addition, in the DSM 5, co-occurring conditions, such as intellectual disability or attention deficit hyperactive disorder, may also be diagnosed when a diagnosis of ASD is made. In the DSM IV, this overlap was not allowed.

ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or be overly active. It is normal for children to have trouble focusing and behaving at one time or another. However, children with ADHD do not just grow out of these behaviors. The symptoms continue, can be severe, and can cause difficulty at school, at home, or with friends. There are three types: Predominantly Inattentive Presentation, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation, and Combined Presentation.​

Fucsia Background
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
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